The effect of bradykinin on the pro-inflammatory response of human adipocytes
The proper functioning of adipose tissue is one of the factors in maintaining energy homeostasis. Adipocytes not only store lipids but also produce active molecules such as adipokines and adipocytokines, which are involved in many functions of adipose tissue, including the secretion of hormones that regulate energy and lipid metabolism. Inflammation has been shown to underlie the deregulation of adipose tissue function. Bradykinin belongs to a family of pro-inflammatory kinin peptides that are abundant in most tissues and biological fluids. This study aimed to determine the ability to produce kinin peptides and characterize the effect of bradykinin on pro-inflammatory responses in adipocytes. The Chub-S7 human preadipocyte line was differentiated to show specific properties for adipose tissue cells. The differentiated cells expressed genes that encode proteins such as kininogen, kallikrein, and prolylcarboxypeptidase that are involved in the production of kinins and also showed the expression of kinin receptors. The response of adipocytes to bradykinin was examined in relation to kinin concentration and the presence of kininase inhibitors. The high concentration of bradykinin induced a moderate increase in lipid accumulation, increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and altered gene expression of molecules involved in adipocyte function, such as adiponectin, lipoprotein lipase, and other transcription factors. This study suggests an important role for kinin peptides in inducing inflammatory responses in adipocytes, which can modify the function of adipose tissue and ultimately lead to diseases related to disturbance of energy homeostasis. The results obtained may enrich our understanding of the mechanisms underlying obesity-related disorders.
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