Placental expression of Fatty Acid Desaturases 1, 2 and 3 in selected pregnancy pathologies
Intrauterine development is a key period in human life. The foetal progress largely depends on the function of the placenta, whose responsibility is transportation and biosynthesis of fatty acids. Desaturation enzymes play a key role in placental fatty acid metabolism. Expression of genes coding for desaturases may be associated with pregnancy abnormalities. The objective of this study was to determine the transcriptional activity of the placental genes Fatty Acid Desaturases 1, 2 and 3 (FADS 1, 2 and 3) in women who gave birth to the infants appropriate for gestational age, large for gestational age, small for gestational age, with intrauterine growth restriction and born preterm. 34 pregnant women aged 21–37 years old participated in the study. The placental samples were taken from a site located 2–3 cm away from the umbilical cord attachment. The collected tissue sections were stored in RNAlater according to the manufacturer’s protocol, until required for molecular analysis. The expression profiles of FADS1, FADS2 and FADS3 were determined with RT-qPCR. There was no difference in FADS1 and FADS2 expression between the groups. However, the differences in the expression of the FADS3 were found. Analysis of the FADS1, FADS2 and FADS3 transcription showed significant differences between most of the examined groups. Our findings suggest that the transcriptional activity of FADS genes changes with the severity of intrauterine disorders and is associated with foetal lipid disorders linked to a greater accumulation of fat in the foetal tissues.
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