Mitochondria, pattern recognition receptors and autophagy under physiological and pathological conditions, including viral infections
Research on the health of mammals invariably shows how dynamic immunology is and how the role of many elements and immune processes of the macroorganism, developed in the process of evolution in protecting against threats, including infections, is changing. Among these elements conditioning the homeostasis of the macroorganism are mitochondria, PRR receptors (pattern recognition receptors) and the phenomenon of autophagy. In the context of physiological and pathological states in the body, mitochondria perform various functions. The primary function of these organelles is to produce energy in the cell, but on the other hand, they are heavily involved in various cellular processes, including ROS production and calcium homeostasis. They are largely involved in the activation of immune mechanisms during infectious and non-infectious conditions through mtDNA and the mitochondrial MAVS protein. Mitochondrial involvement has been also determined in PRR-related mechanisms as mtDNA has the ability to directly stimulate TLRs. On the other hand, mitochondria are also associated with apoptotic cell death and autophagy.
Copyright (c) 2021 Paulina Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, Dominika Bębnowska, Roman Kołacz, Wiesław Deptuła
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