Muscle adaptation to sleeve gastrectomy: Potential role of nutritional supplementation and physical exercise
Skeletal muscle is metabolically and functionally flexible and contractile under normal conditions. Obesity is a risk factor that causes metabolic disorders and reduces muscle contractility. Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has been used for surgical correction of obesity. This work aimed to investigate how obesity and its surgical correction affects skeletal muscle and the possible role of nutritional supplementation and physical exercise. Adult male albino rats were randomly divided into five groups, 8 rats per group: group Ia (control non-obese), group Ib (control obese), group II (post-operative, SG), group III (post SG + nutritional supplementation) and group IV (post SG + nutritional supplementation + physical exercise). SG resulted in cellular and metabolic degenerative disorders in the muscle including wasting, weakness and fibrosis with elevated inflammatory, oxidative and injury markers. Nutritional supplementation induced the post SG muscle regeneration indicated by high expression of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and myogenin and low expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). Interestingly, it improved the metabolic state of the muscle by reducing the oxidative stress, inflammatory and muscle injury markers and delaying the onset of fatigue. What is more, physical exercise along with nutritional supplementation resulted in further improvement of the muscle metabolic state and function. In conclusion, nutritional supplementations together with physical exercise after SG are essential for preserving muscle mass and contractility and improving its metabolic and functional status.
Copyright (c) 2021 Entesar Ali Saber, Neven Makram Aziz, Mohammed Mustafa Abd El Aleem, Maha Yehia Kamel, Seham A Abd El-Aleem, Fatma Farrag Ali, Doaa Mohamed Elroby Ali, Amira Fathi Behery
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