The amelioration of T2DM rat femoral bone achieved by anti-osteoporosis of caprine CSN1S2 protein through bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway

  • Fatchiyah Fatchiyah 1Research Center of Smart Molecule of Natural Genetics Resource, Brawijaya University, Malang, East Java, Indonesia; 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
  • Bambang Setiawan Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical Faculty, Lambung Mangkurat University, Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia
  • Tomohiko Sasase Biological/Pharmacological Research Laboratories, Central Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Japan Tobacco Inc., Osaka, Japan
  • Takeshi Ohta Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan


We investigated the potential anti-glycation and anti-osteoporosis properties of Caprine milk CSN1S2 protein on the serum AGEs and sRAGE level, osteogenic factors expressions, femoral bone mesostructure, histomorphometry, and hydroxyapatite crystals changes in T2DM rats. Varying doses of Caprine milk CSN1S2 protein (0, 375, 750, and 1500 mg/kg BW) were used to treat the control and T2DM rats. We measured AGEs and sRAGE level; RUNX2, OSX, BMP2, and Caspase-3 expressions in rats using ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The mesostructure and histomorphometry of femoral bone was analyzed using SEM Microscope and BoneJ software, then hydroxyapatite crystal size was determined using SEM-XRD. T2DM rats showed a high level of AGEs and a low level of sRAGE, the RUNX2, OSX, and BMP2 expression was down regulated, BV, BV.TV, Tb.Th, Tb.Sp, increased and SMI levels declined, respectively. Vice versa, after administration of the CSN1S2 protein to T2DM rats, improvement in all levels of molecular and cellular markers was achieved. In the CSN1S2 highest dose, AGEs level declined and sRAGE level elevated in T2DM rats. The 375 and 750 mg/kgBW of CSN1S2 protein was able to upregulate the RUNX2, OSX, and BMP2 expression in T2DM rats, thus improving the normalization of osteoclasts and osteoblasts number. The whole dose of CSN1S2 triggered the thickening of trabecular bone wall, granule formation, and normalized the trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) parameter of T2DM rats. The hydroxyapatite crystal size was increased in the highest dose of CSN1S2-treated T2DM rats. This study indicated that CSN1S2 protein had a protective effect against osteoporosis in the T2DM rat bones by means of glycation pathway inhibition, bone histomorphometry and mesostructure improvement via bone morphometric protein signaling.