Dose-dependent production of linoleic acid analogues in food derived Lactobacillus plantarum K25 and in silico characterization of relevant reactions
The objective of this study was to assess and scrutinize the competency of probiotic L. plantarum K25 to produce linoleic acid analogues in the medium supplemented with different concentrations of linoleic acid, ranging from 1% to 10%, in a dose dependent manner. The analogues produced were identified and quantitated by GC-MS and in silico studies were done to confirm enzymatic reactions involved in its conversion. The results showed that L. plantarum K25 could convert linoleic acid at different concentrations to 9 different fatty acid analogues at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 17.24 mg/L. Among these metabolites, formation of an essential fatty acid, the linolenic acid, in media supplemented with 9% linoleic acid, is being reported for the first time. Putative candidate enzymes involved in biotransformation of linoleic acid into linoleic acid analogues were identified in the whole genome of L. plantarum K25, which was sequenced previously. In silico studies confirmed that many enzymes, including linoleate isomerase and dehydrogenase, may be involved in biotransformation of linoleic acid into linoleic acid analogues. Both enzymes could effectively bind the linoleic acid molecule, mainly by forming hydrogen bonding between the acidic groups of linoleic acid and the proline residues at the active sites of the enzymes, validating putative reaction partners.
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