Modulation of GAPDH expression and cellular localization after vaccinia virus infection of human adherent monocytes.
AbstractVaccinia virus is able to replicate in many cell types and is known to modulate apoptosis in infected cells. In this study, expression of apoptosis-related genes was screened in human adherent monocytes after vaccinia infection using a DNA array. A marked increase of the key glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression was found. Increased expression and nuclear translocation of GAPDH have recently been reported to participate in apoptosis of many cell types. To confirm the array results, levels of GAPDH mRNA were estimated by RT-PCR, showing an increase at 4 h p.i. followed by a slight decrease, which correlated with the viral anti-apoptotic E3L gene transcript levels. Subcellular localization of the enzyme in human monocytes was examined by Western blot and immunostaining of the infected cells. Both experiments revealed accumulation of GAPDH in the nucleus at 14 h p.i., which was completely suppressed at 24 h p.i. This might indicate GAPDH as a novel target for vaccinia anti-apoptotic modulation.
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