Effect of maternal dietary supplementation with phytosterol esters on muscle development of broiler offspring
Recently, embryo muscle development, which is crucial for postnatal skeletal muscle growth, has been investigated widely. Nutrients in ovo were suggested to be critical in embryo muscle development since the chick growth mostly relies on nutrients in eggs at the early developmental stage. Phytosterol esters (PE), which are derived from the reactions between phytosterols and fatty acids, were demonstrated to have important effects on lipid and cholesterol metabolism regulation. In order to reveal the effect of maternal lipid metabolism on the deposition of nutrients in eggs and the development of embryonic muscles, broiler hens were fed with a diet supplemented with 5% PE or control diet. Lipid deposition in eggs and growth of the hatched chicks were studied. We found that PE increased bile acid (BA) deposition in the eggs and serum of hens (p=0.02 and p<0.01, respectively), altered insulin and glucose level differentially in female and male offspring, and promoted body weight (p=0.02 for male and female on day 49), muscle fiber density (p=0.02 for female on day 49), and myogenin and myogenic determination factor (myoD) expression (p=0.03 and p=0.02 on day 49) by the activation of BA receptors in female, but not in male, offspring. Our study determined for the first time that PE promoted muscle development of chicks hatching from eggs laid by the hens, through regulating bile acid (BA) deposition and this may be attributed to the activation of BA receptors.
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