Assessment of fracture healing properties of lovastatin loaded nanoparticles: preclinical study in rat model
Lovastatin nanoparticles for fracture healing
Bone fracture, being mainly caused by mechanical stress, requires special and quick attention for a rapid healing. The study presented here aims at formulating nanoparticulate system to overcome the solubility issues of lovastatin. The lovastatin nanoparticles were successfully prepared by ionotropic gelation method using chitosan and tri-polyphosphate as polymers. Thus prepared nanoparticles were found to be smooth and spherical with average particle size of 87 nm and encapsulation efficiency of 86.5%. The in-vitro drug release was found to be almost 89.6% in the first 360 minutes. Artificial fracture was produced in female Wistar rats at right leg using fracture apparatus. After administration of lovastatin nanoparticles or saline solution, the respective groups were observed for various parameters. The X-ray imaging showed that lovastatin accelerated bone healing, compared to control. The growth of animals was not hampered by lovastatin by any means. The radiographic examination confirmed a role of lovastatin in increasing bone density. The histological study showed the broken, proliferated and discontinued trabecullae in the control, while at the same time point, the normal, thick, continuous and connected trabecullae were observed in animals administered with lovastatin nanoparticles. The biomechanical studies showed high breaking resilience and minimum bone brittleness in animals injected with lovastatin nanoparticles. Considering these observations we state that lovastatin helps in rapid bone healing after fracture via increasing the bone density.
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