Protamine-like proteins have bactericidal activity. The first evidence in Mytilus galloprovincialis
The major acid-soluble protein components of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm chromatin consist of the protamine-like proteins PL-II, PL-III and PL-IV, an intermediate group of sperm nuclear basic proteins between histones and protamines. The aim of this study was to investigate the bactericidal activity of these proteins since, to date, there are reports on bactericidal activity of protamines and histones, but not on protamine-like proteins. We tested the bactericidal activity of these proteins against Gram-positive bacteria: Enterococcus faecalis and two different strains of Staphylococcus aureus, as well as Gram-negative bacteria: Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhmurium, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, and Escherichia coli. Clinical isolates of the same bacterial species were also used to compare their sensitivity to these proteins. The results show that Mytilus galloprovincialis protamine-like proteins exhibited bactericidal activity against all bacterial strains tested with different minimum bactericidal concentration values, ranging from 15.7 to 250 µg/mL. Furthermore, these proteins were active against some bacterial strains tested that are resistant to conventional antibiotics. These proteins showed very low toxicity as judged by red blood cell lysis and viability MTT assays and seem to act both at the membrane level and within the bacterial cell. We also tested the bactericidal activity of the product obtained from an in vitro model of gastrointestinal digestion of protamine-like proteins on a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative strain, and obtained the same results with respect to undigested protamine-like proteins on the Gram-positive bacterium. These results provide the first evidence of bactericidal activity of protamine-like-proteins.
Davide A.L. Vignati
LIEC - CNRS UMR 7360
UFR SciFA - Université de Lorraine - Campus Bridoux - Bât. IBISE
, rue du Général Delestraint - 57070 METZ
Dipartimento di Farmacia - VIA D. MONTESANO, 49 Università di Napoli, Italy
University of Victoria, Dept. of Biochemistry & Microbiology, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
Copyright (c) 2018 Rosaria Notariale, Adriana Basile, Elena Montana, Nunzia Colonna Romano, Maria Grazia Cacciapuoti, Francesco Aliberti, Renato Gesuele, Francesca De Ruberto, Sergio Sorbo, Gian Carlo Tenore, Marco Guida, Katrina V. Good, Juan Ausió, Marina Piscopo
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