Inhibitory effect of selenomethionine on carcinogenesis in the model of human colorectal cancer in vitro and its link to the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
AbstractSelenium compounds have been implicated as anticancer agents; however, the mechanism of their inhibitory action against cancer development has not been extensively investigated. The constitutive activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a central event in colorectal carcinogenesis. In this pathway, the excessive cell proliferation is initiated by the generation of β-catenin followed by overexpression of proto-oncogenes such as c-Myc. It is believed that under physiological conditions the level of c-Myc is efficiently controlled by accessibility of β-catenin protein through the process of phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β). Here, we determined whether selenomethionine (SeMet) can inhibit cell growth and affect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The effective cytotoxic doses of SeMet have been selected after 48 h of incubation of this compound with colorectal cancer HT-29 cell line. The MTT assay was used to assess cell viability and the protein and mRNA levels of β-catenin and c-Myc were determined by Western blotting and qPCR, respectively. The SeMet potently inhibited growth of HT-29 cells, significantly decreased the β-catenin protein and mRNA concentration, down-regulated the c-Myc gene expression and up-regulated pro-apoptotic Bax protein expression. Moreover, SeMet increased the level of GSK-3β phosphorylated at serine 9 (S9) and significantly increased the level of β-catenin phosphorylated at S33 and S37. We conclude that SeMet suppresses the growth of HT-29 colorectal cancer cells by the mechanism linked to the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, however, the degradation of β-catenin may occur independently of GSK-3β catalytic activity and its phosphorylation status.
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