Studies on stability of emulsions containing carotenoids

  • Joanna Igielska-Kalwat College of Health and Beauty Education, Faculty of Cosmetology and Educational Sciences


Emulsions are commonly used to improve aesthetics but they may also be applied to deliver active ingredients. Recently, group of pigments known as carotenoids, have been added to emulsions as an active compounds mainly due to their antioxidant properties. The stability of these formulations is a critical parameter for both pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry. Therefore, in this study analytical methods, multiple light scattering and laser diffraction, were tested to determine the stability of various emulsions containing carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene, astaxanthin). Even small changes in stability of emulsions were determined very early. The results of both methods proved that the type of carotenoid used did not influence the emulsions stability. The stability of emulsions depends mainly on the preparation methods and on the type of applied emulsifier. 


Anuncuato TP, da Rocha Filho PA (2012) Carotenoids and polyphenols in nutricosmetics, nutraceuticals, and cosmeceuticals. J Cosmet Dermatol 11: 51-54.

Arakane K (2008) Superior Skin Protection via Astaxanthin, Research & Development Division. KOSE Corporation, Tokyo.

Beutner S, Bloedorn B, Frixel S, Hernández Blanco I, Hoffmann T, Martin HD, Mayer B, Noack P, Ruck C, Schmidt M, Schülke I, Sell S, Ernst H, Haremza S, Seybold G, Sies H, Stahl W, Walsh R (2001) Quantitative assessment of antioxidant properties of natural colorants and phytochemicals: carotenoids, flavonoids, phenols and indigoids. The role of β-carotene in antioxidant functions. J Sci Food Agric 81: 559-568.

Cabrić M, Pokrywka L (2010) Piękno ciała. Wydawnictwo naukowe PWN, Warszawa.

Celia C, Trapasso E, Cosco D, Paolino D, Fresta M (2009) Turbiscan lab expert analysis of the stability of ethosomes and ultradeformable liposomes containing a bilayer fluidizing agent. Coll Surf B Biointerfaces 72: 155-160.

Chauvierre C, Labarre D, Couvreur P, Vauthier C (2004) Long-circulating copolymers based on their emulsifying properties. Colloid Polymer Sci 282: 1097-1104.

Curt C (1994) Méthodes d'évaluation de la stabilité des émulsions. Principes, applications, avantages et inconvenient. Sci Aliment: 14, 699-724.

Emulsion stability and testing, Technical Brief, Particle Sciences Drug Development, Manufacturing & Delivery Services, 2011.

Estrin NF, Akerson JM (2000) Cosmetic Regulation in a Competitive Environment. CRC Press, New York, pp.1-480.

Gärtner C, Stahl W, Sies, H (1997) Lycpene is more bioavailable from tomato paste than from fresh tomatoes. Am J Clin Nutr: 66, 116-122.

Gunasekera RS, Sewgobind K, Desai S, Dunn L, Black HS, McKeehan WL, Patil B (2007) Lycopene and lutein inhibit proliferation in rat prostate carcinoma cells. Nutr Cancer: 58, 171-177.

Hallmann E, Rembiałkowska E, Lipowski J, Marszałek K (2007) The estimation of nutritive and sensory value of the pasteurized tomato juice from organic and conventional production. J Res Appl Agric Eng: 55, 105-111.

Igielska-Kalwat J, Gościańska J, Nowak N (2013a) Antyoksydacyjne właściwości karotenoidów. Kosmetyka i Kosmetologia: 96, 93-96.

Igielska-Kalwat J, Gościańska J, Nowak I (2013b) Zastosowanie astaksantyny w preparatach kosmetycznych. Kosmetologia Estetyczna: 2, 83-85.

Igielska-Kalwat J, Wawrzyńczak W, Nowak I (2012) Karotenoidy i ich zastosowanie w przemyśle kosmetycznym na przykładzie β- karotenu. Chemik: 2, 140-144.

Johnson EJ, Qin J, Krinsky NI, Russell RM (1997) Ingestion by men of a combined dose of beta-carotene and lycopene does not affect the absorption of beta-carotene but improves that of lycopene. J Nutr: 127, 1833-1837.

Lee MT, Chen B.H (2002) Stability of lycopene during heating and illumination in a model system. Food Chem: 78, 425-433.

Lemarchand C, Couvreur P, Vauthier C, Costantini D, Gref R (2003a) Study of emulsion stabilization by graft copolymers using the optical analyzer Turbiscan. Int J Pharm: 254, 77-82.

Lemarchand C, Couvreur P, Besnard M, Costantini D, Gref R (2003b) Novel polyester-polysaccharide nanoparticle. Pharm Res: 20, 1284-1292.

Lindgren A, Sjöström M, Wold S (1996) Quantitative-structure-effect relationship for some technical nonionic surfactants. J Am Oil Chem Soc: 73, 863-875.

Mengual O, Meunier G, Cayre I, Puech K, Snabre P (1999) TURBISCAN MA 2000: multiple light scattering measurement for concentrated emulsion and suspension instability analyses. Talanta: 50, 445-456.

Morganti P, Martins D, Morganti G (2009) Aktywność luteiny w skórze. SOFW- Journal – Polish edition: 1, 13-18.

Palazolo GG, Sorgentini DA, Wagner JR (2005) Coalescence and flocculation in soy proteins in comparison with soy protein isolates. Food Hydrocoll: 19, 595-604.

Palombo P, Fabrizi G, Ruocco V, Ruocco E, Fluhr J, Roberts R, Morganti P (2007) Beneficial long-term effects of combined oral/topical antioxidant treatment with the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin on human skin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Skin Pharmacol Physiol: 20, 199-210.

Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the council of 30 November 2009 on cosmetics products.

Relikn P, Sourdet S (2005) Factors affecting fat droplet aggregation in protein-stabilized emulsions. Food Hydrocolloid: 19, 3, 503-511.

Rodriguez – Amaja DB, Kimura M (2004) Harvestplus handbook for carotenoid analysis. Harvest Plus Technical Monographs. No. 2, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) Washington, pp. 1-58.

Scarmo S, Cartmel B, Lin H, Leffell DJ, Welch E, Bhosale P, Bernstein, PS, Mayne ST (2010) Significant correlations of dermal total carotenoids and dermal lycopene with their respective plasma levels in healthy adults. Arch Biochem Biophys: 504, 34-39.

Seki T, Sueki H, Kohno H, Suganuma K, Yamashita E (2001) Effects of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialison human skin - patch test; skin repeated application test; effect on wrinkle reduction. Fragrance J: 12, 98-103.

Tadros T.F (2008) Emulsion Science and Technology. Colloids and Interface Science Series. Wiley-VCH, Verlag, Weinheim, pp. 1-344.

The Fundamentals of Stability Testing (1992) (IFSCC Monograph No. 2). International Federation of Societies of Cosmetic Chemists,. Micelle Press, Cranford, NJ.

Tominaga K, Hongo N, Yamashita E (2012) Cosmetic benefits of astaxanthin on humans subjects. Acta Biochim Pol: 59, 43-47.

Toor RK, Savage GP, Lister CE (2006). Seasonal variations in the antioxidant composition of greenhouse grown tomatoes. J Food Comp Anal: 19, 1-10.

User manual of particle size analyzer Mastersizer 2000.

Vandamme EJ, Soetaert W (2006) Personal care products via fermentation and biocatalysis processes [in] Biotechnology in Personal Care. Cosmetics Sciences and Technology Series. Taylor & Francis, New York, pp. 27-56.

Yamashita E (2002) Cosmetic benefit of dietary supplements containing astaxanthin and tocotrienol on human skin. Food Style: 21, 112-1177.