Clinical, biochemical and genetic risk factors for 30-day and 5-year mortality in 518 adult patients subjected to cardiopulmonary bypass during cardiac surgery - the INFLACOR study.

  • Maciej Michał Kowalik Department of Cardiac Anesthesiology Medical University of Gdańsk
  • Romuald Lango Department of Cardiac Anesthesiology Medical University of Gdańsk
  • Piotr Siondalski Department of Cardiac and Vascular Surgery Medical University of Gdańsk
  • Magdalena Chmara Department of Biology and Genetics Medical University of Gdańsk
  • Maciej Brzeziński Department of Cardiac and Vascular Surgery Medical University of Gdańsk
  • Krzysztof Lewandowski Department of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry Medical University of Gdańsk
  • Dariusz Jagielak Department of Cardiac and Vascular Surgery Medical University of Gdańsk
  • Andrzej Klapkowski Department of Cardiac and Vascular Surgery Medical University of Gdańsk
  • Jan Rogowski Department of Cardiac and Vascular Surgery Medical University of Gdańsk
Keywords: cardiac surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass, 30-day mortality, 5-year mortality, ICAM1 rs5498, ICAM-1, renal replacement therapy


There is increasing evidence that genetic variability influence patients’ early morbidity after cardiac surgery performed using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The use of mortality as an outcome measure in cardiac surgical genetic association studies is rare. We publish the 30-day and 5-year survival analyses with focus on pre-, intra-, postoperative variables, biochemical parameters, and genetic variants in the INFLACOR (INFlAmmation in Cardiac OpeRations) cohort.

In a series of prospectively recruited 518 adult Polish Caucasians who underwent cardiac surgery in which CPB was used, the clinical data, biochemical parameters, IL-6, soluble ICAM-1, TNFa, soluble E-selectin, and 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms were evaluated for their associations with 30-day and 5-year mortality.

The 30-day mortality was associated with: pre-operative prothrombin international normalized ratio, intra-operative blood lactate, postoperative serum creatine phosphokinase, and acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy (AKI-RRT) in logistic regression. Factors that determined the 5-year survival included: pre-operative NYHA class, history of peripheral artery disease and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, intra-operative blood transfusion; and postoperative peripheral hypothermia, myocardial infarction, infection, and AKI-RRT in Cox regression. The serum levels of IL-6 and ICAM-1 measured three hours after operation were associated with 30-day and 5-year mortality, respectively. The ICAM1 rs5498 was associated with 30-day and 5-year survival with borderline significance.

Different risk factors determined the early (30-day) and late (5-year) survival after adult cardiac surgery in which cardiopulmonary bypass was used. Future genetic association studies in cardiac surgical patients should adjust for the identified chronic and acute postoperative risk factors.


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