Maillard neoglycans as inhibitors for in vitro adhesion of F4+ of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to piglet intestinal cells
Adhesion of enterotoxigenic (ETEC) E. coli to host intestinal cells is mediated by lectin-like fimbriae that bind to specific glycan moieties on the surfaces of enterocytes. To prevent in vitro binding of E. coli F4 fimbriae (F4 ETEC+) to piglet enterocytes, neoglycans were synthesized by the Maillard reaction conjugating lactose (Lac), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) or chitin oligosaccharides (Ochit) to porcine serum albumin (PSA). Neoglycans were characterized by SDS-PAGE, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and recognition by plant lectins, as well as by F4 ETEC variants. Electrophoretic patterns suggested the binding to PSA of 63, 13 and 2 molecules of Lac, GOS and Ochit, respectively. All neoglycans showed quenching of tryptophan fluorescence consistent with the degree of glycation estimated by SDS-PAGE. Plant lectins recognized the neoglycans according to their specificity, whereas antigenic variants of F4 ETEC (ab, ac and ad) recognized PSA-Ochit and PSA-Lac with higher affinity than that for GOS. The neoglycans partially hindered the ex vivo binding of F4+ ETEC to piglet enterocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The most effective blocking was observed with PSA-Lac that partially inhibited the adhesion of bacteria to enterocytes in a dose dependent manner as quantified by flow cytometry. Increased production of the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α was observed in response to F4+ ETEC infection of enterocytes and production was reduced in the presence of PSA-Ochit and PSA-GOS. These results suggest that neoglycans synthesized by the Maillard reaction could be useful in the prophylaxis of diarrhea in piglets.
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